Turkic words in Russian

Feb 14, 2011 by

Staying on the subject of Turkic languages, let’s consider what impact these languages had on the Russian language. Some time ago we’ve considered the influence of Finnic languages on Russian, which, as I pointed out in that earlier posting, is subtle, elusive and mostly grammatical. The Turkic influence on Russian is exactly the opposite: it is extensive, obvious and mostly lexical. Also, the influence of Finnic and Turkic languages penetrated the Russian language from different directions, as it were: Finnic traits crept into Russian via northern Russian dialects (marked green on the map below) and Turkic languages had a more direct impact on southern Russian dialects (marked orange on the map below).

1. The nature of linguistic influence vs. the nature of human contact. Turkic and Finnic influence on the Russian language can used to illustrate the principle that the nature of linguistic influence correlates with the nature of human contact. In the north, Russians were the invaders/settlers. As shown by genetic studies such as Malyarchuk et al. (2005), it was mostly Russian men who settled in former Finnic-speaking territories, often intermarrying with Finnic women. Further south, where Russians came into contact with Turkic-speaking peoples, the situation was the opposite: Turkic-speaking men moved into Russian-speaking territory, taking Slavic-speaking wives (note that I am using “marrying” and “taking a wife” here as euphemisms for all sorts of what geneticists nicely refer to as “paternity events” — we don’t know to what extent they were marriages “between two consenting adults”).

The substrate language — in this case, Finnic languages — had mostly grammatical impact on Russian, whereas the languages of invaders — in this case, Turkic languages — had mostly lexical influence. The same pattern is observable in the British Isles: Celtic substrate languages has mostly grammatical influence and the influence of the Normans is largely (although not only) lexical.

2. How to identify loanwords? The first step in identifying potential loanwords in Russian would be to compare various Russian words with their counterparts in other Slavic languages. There are numerous cognates between Russian and, say, West Slavic languages like Polish and Czech: compare, for example, the Russian medved’ ‘bear’ with the Polish niedżwiedż and the Czech medvĕd or the Russian pčela ‘bee’ with the Polish pszczoła and the Czech včela. On the other hand, words like the Russian izjum ‘raisin’ and saraj ‘shed’ are not cognate to their Polish and Czech counterparts (Polish rozinka and Czech hrozinka and Polish and Czech stodola, respectively). These Russian words that stand out among their Slavic counterparts are good candidates for loanwords.

The next step is to look for cognates in Turkic languages: for example, the Russian slang word bashka ‘head’ is an obvious cognate to the Uzbek bosh, Kyrghyz bash and Turkmen baş, all likewise meaning ‘head’.

Luckily, a characteristic property of Turkic languages — vowel harmony — makes it easier to recognize Turkic loanwords in Russian (recall from an earlier posting that Finno-Ugric languages too typically have vowel harmony). Vowel harmony is a phenomenon whereby vowels assimilate to each other across intervening consonants so vowels within a word end up being alike. Thus, although it is by no means a hard-and-fast rule, but many Russian words that have the same vowel throughout the word are Turkic borrowings: such are words bashmak ‘shoe’, almaz ‘diamond’, baklazhan ‘eggplant’, sunduk ‘box, chest’ and chugun ‘cast iron’. Another give-away for Turkic loanwords in Russian are the suffixes (often no longer perceived as such) -cha and -lyk, as in the Russian Turkic-loanwords alycha ‘kind of plum’ and sarancha ‘locust’, balyk ‘salted and dried sturgeon or salmon’ and jarlyk ‘label’ (note that the latter has recently been all but replaced by an English-loanword lejbla).

3. Why loanwords? Loanwords come into the target language for a variety of reasons. In the case of Turkic loanwords in Russian, many of them go back to the time of the Golden Horde that for obvious reason brought in many words that have to do with state and financial matters: for instance, kazak ‘kazak’, karaul ‘guard’, kazna ‘treasury’ and den’ga ‘money’. Other Turkic loanwords in Russian are labels for things and concepts that were borrowed from Turkic-speaking peoples as well: kirpich ‘brick’, arbuz ‘watermelon’, bashmak ‘shoe’, etc.

But many other Turkic loanwords coexist with indigenous Slavic words and express various nuances of meaning and usage. For example, Russian has a Slavic-derived word kon’ ‘horse’ that is cognate to the Polish koń and Czech kůň. Yet, there is another word for ‘horse’ in Russian — loshad’ — which came from Turkic languages (apparently, this borrowing predates the Golden Horde period). The two ‘horse’-words, kon’ and loshad’, do not mean exactly the same thing and cannot be used interchangeably. The former word, which is grammatically masculine, is used to refer to a male horse only, whereas the latter is a default, gender-less word for ‘horse’ (although it is grammatically feminine). In many expressions, loshad’ is the idiomatic choice and kon’ cannot be substituted: hence, rabochaja loshad’ is ‘work horse’ and a unit of power is loshadinnaja sila ‘horse power’. Still, the command ‘To horse!’ is Po konjam! (the word kon’ here is in the dative plural form) and not *Po loshadjam!. ‘Horse meat’ in Russian is konina and not loshadina and ‘horsefish’ is morskoj konek (literally, ‘small sea horse’) and not morskaja loshadka.

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  • Dave

    Very interesting post. Russian karandash seems to fit this pattern well. And, to bring in something totally random, do you have any idea if the Swiss brand of pencils, "Caran D'Ache" has any Russian connection?

  • Dave

    Oops, I see the answer is right there on the Caran D'Ache website. Sorry to clutter up your blog.

  • Asya Pereltsvaig

    No problem. So what's the answer?

  • Dave

    The Caran D'Ache website gives an explanation of sorts:

    "From its earliest days in 1915 and the official opening of the company in 1924 by Arnold Schweitzer, Caran d’Ache’s development has reflected its passion for the most beautiful materials.

    Why Caran d’Ache? Because a leading artist of the time was a Russian, Emmanuel Poiré, and in his native tongue “Karandash” means a pencil. It is possible that neither he nor Arnold Schweitzer knew the true origins of the word and they would be delighted to know that it comes from the Turkish “kara tash” meaning “black stone” the natural pigment that makes marks. It is graphite, the material that helped to develop drawing and writing and is so valuable for artists and for Caran d’Ache pencils."

    This is a little vague, but seems to say that the company name was chosen to imitate the Russian word, but also seems to imply that those involved were under the impression that the Russian word actually comes from the French phrase, else why bother to recite the true derivation.

  • Asya Pereltsvaig

    that sounds about right… thank you!

  • Asya Pereltsvaig

    A different etymology for loshad': http://www.svobodanews.ru/content/article/369157.html

    • RAGE

      My other answer to your comment still seems as a spam. I want to post another research about Babay, Loshad, Sobaka, etc. Maybe you know already…

      Chuvash and Slavic connections:
      Note: Bolg – modern-day Bulgarian Slavic language
      Bulg – Bulgarian language as one of Turkic languages.

      Ukr, Rus loša “foal, colt”, Rus lošad’ “horse” – Chuv loša “horse” ( Tur, Tat a.o. alaša).

      Ukr, Rus, Kash sobaka “dog” – Tur, Gag. köpek “dog”.

      Ukr babay “an old man”. This word is mainly used in sense “an fearful old man” to frighten small children – Chuv papay “old man”. According Herodotus, main Scythian deity was Papai. Ukrainians didn’t worshipped the alien god but feared him lending him fearful features.

      Sl *kobyla “a mare” (Ukr, Rus, Cz, Slvk kobyla etc) Lat caballus “horse”, Pers kaval “fast horse”, Gr ιπποσ, Fin hepo, Est hobu “horse” etc – all these words have the origin from Turk jaby “horse”.

      Sl *kǔniga “a book” (Rus, Pol kniga, Ukr knyha, Cz kniha etc)– M. Vasmer and others scholars are agree with Türkic origin of the word (Old Chuv. *koniv ← *konig).

      Ukr, Rus sorok “forty” – Cрuv xěrěx “forty” (the others Turkic languages have mainly the form qyrq for the meaning “forty”). Turkic origin of this word is not be ruled out the possibility by some scholars.

      Rus, Ukr xomut, Czech chomout, Slvk chomút, Pol chomąt “collar for horse” – Chuv xămăt “collar for horse”. Old Bulgarian origin of Slavic word could be sure as similar words are present in other Turkic languages, however the nasal vowel ą in Polish word has to be explained.

      Sl xyža “hut” (Ukr xyža, Rus xižina, Czech chýše, Slvk chyža и т.д.) – Chuv xüše „hut, hovel”. The words of this root are present in Germanic languages (Germanic hūsa, Germ Haus, Eng house etc). This word is noted as “Herkunft unklar” (obscure origin) in Kluge’s dictionary.

      Sl *zerz “iron, rust”. Most part of scholars restore Slavic word for the rust as *rǔdja according to Pol rdza, Bolg rǔžda, Rus rža, Ukr irža, Czech rez, and Slav *ruda “ore”. But there is the word zerz “rust” in Lusatian (Sorbian) languages which cannot be derived from *rǔdja. The root of this word has Turkic origin. Turkics use words jez, zez, čes (Chuv. jěs) for the name of copper or brass which derived from ancient forms jerz/zerz. Indo-Europeans have borrowed this word from Turkic at the time when the “know-how” of iron technology was unknown, and used it for the name of copper and bronze. Later this word has been transferred on the name of iron in the some Indo-European languages. Just the primary Turkic form for the name of copper is kept in Lusatian word zerz “rust”. This form was transformed in Slavic *zelz-o with the meaning “iron” (Ukr zalizo, Rus železo, Bulg, Pol żelazo, etc). On the other hand, the ancient Turkic word zerz in lightly altered form has kept in Ukr. žers-t’ “tin-plate” (similar Russian word žes-t’ has lost r).

      Rus braga, Ukr braha “home-made beer” – Max Vasmer supposed the origin of the word in Chuvach pěraga “home-made, watery beer”. Obviously, he bore in mind Chuv păraka “grains, draff”.

      Pol harcerz “scout” – Chuv xarsăr “courageous” originated from Turkic *qors “bold, malicious”. Polish word kept old Turkic consonant rz. There are similar words in Turkic languages having meaning “robber”or “thief”. Ukr xartsyz, xartsyz’aka “robber” was borrowed from one of them later as Polish word was.


  • Musa S.

    In Turkic languages horse is always in the form of "at". And I have never heard of alosha word in Turkic languages, but there is a word in Bashkir alashar "castrating". Yet alosha+at > loshad' is controversial because of "t".
    The information which Dobrodomov shares with us, is more reasonable morphologically (loshy-loshad)but semantically has to be explained.

  • Asya Pereltsvaig

    @Musa S: Thank you for your comment. Indeed, the etymology of loshad' is rather controversial.

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  • Nick

    what about Russian ‘sobaka’ (dog) versus pes (dog) in Czech? is this a turkic loan word?

    • Good question. I am not sure. I’d have to investigate it.

      • Ilya Zlatanov

        Usually Iranian etymology is offered: Avestan sраkа- “dog’s, canine”, sрā “dog”, Pahlavi

    • RAGE

      Maybe checking it without vocals can help…

      Sobaka S-P-K, S-B-K, (Turkic dog) Kopek/Kobek K-P-K, K-B-K

      Also maybe iz (trace, footprint, vestige) + bak (to look, to see, to view, to tend) Isn’t looking for trace what dog and hunter does?

  • Aryak

    There’s barely any turkic influence at all. All of the words listed above are of secondary usage and are rarely used. Also, it had nothing at all to do with the “golden horde” (kypchak khaganate), since the kypchak khaganate never had any type of extensive interactions with Russia.

    • “Rarely used”? Based on what? Den’gi, kirpich, loshad’, kazak, sunduk, bashka, and saraj are among the 5,000 most frequently used words, and almaz, bashmak, chugun, karaul, kazna, and arbuz are within the 9,000 most frequently used words — not bad for “rarely used” words, eh?

    • webster

      you have issues

    • RAGE

      Then for example why Prince Igor’s mother and grandmother were Kypchaks? Why almost all the mounted army of Russian Knezdoms were Turkic in origin like Berindeys, Torks, Chernie Klobuks, Uzes, etc.? Remember the South Russian proverb “Father is Turk, mother is Greek but I am a Russian”.

  • Aryak

    Russian is a very homogenous language without any turkic or non-European influences.
    Funnily enough, English has around 10 times more “turkic” words than Russian. Why? Because turkic is an artificially invented language that’s partially influence by Indo-European dialects.

    • “Homogenous language”? “Without Turkic … influences”? “An artificially invented language”? WTF?!

    • webster

      yes you do

    • RAGE

      I know invented language of Esperanto is similar to Turkic languages but Turkic languages are not invented languages in anyway. You claim English has more Turkic words but those are known late borrowings. What about these examples below

      English chin – Turkic chene (jawbone)

      English “kin” – Turkic “Kün” (family, race)

      English “King” (old Germanic versions like “Kuning”) – old Turkic “Künung/Künong” (both derived from kin/kün means leader of people but “ong/ung” has no meaning in English/Germanic.

      English “girl” – Turkic “kiz/kir” (girl) (Kiz Z Turkic, kir R Turkic)

      English “baby, babe (in origin baban)” – Turkic “bebe”

      English “body” – Turkic “bod/boy”

      English “boot” – Turkic “bot” (originally for riding boot only)

      English “cake” – Turkic “kek”

      English “-able” – Turkic “-abil, -ebil” (word forming element expressing ability)

      English “suck” – Turkic “sag” (in English to suck, in Turkic sagmak/ to milk)

      English “deep” – Turkic “dip”

      English “tale” – Turkic “tili/tele” (in Germanic languages speech, talk, story, etc. in Turkic oil means tongue tili means to tell, to speak.)

      English “tell” – Turkic “tili/tele” (in Germanic languages speech, talk, story, etc. in Turkic oil means tongue tili means to tell, to speak.)

      English “talk” – Turkic “tili/tele”(in Germanic languages speech, talk, story, etc. in Turkic oil means tongue tili means to tell, to speak, to talk.)

      English “tooth/teeth” – Turkic “tish, dish”

      English “barley” – Turkic “arpa”

      English “socket” – Turkic “sok-” (in English hollow part or piece for receiving and holding something, in Turkic insert, thrust, fill up, stuff, hide)

      English “tremble” – Turkic “titre” (shake from fear, cold, etc.,)

      English “ox” – Türkic “öküz” (in both language means castrated adult cattle male)

      English “yes, yeah” – Turkic “yea, ya”

      English “much” – Turkic “muncha/buncha”

      English “ache” – Turkic “aci” (in English to ache, suffer, pain and same in Turkic aci means pain as noun, to suffer, to ache as verb)

      English “mammal” – Turkic “meme” (in Latin mamma and in Turkic meme means breast, English could be borrowed it not from Latin like many others)

      English “Hurra” – Turkic “Urra/Urun/Uran” “in common Turkic ur means hit, strike, shoot, attack, etc. Iran means war cry, Ottoman Turkish Urun means You (2nd person plural attack, hit, strike, shoot, etc.)

      English “akin” – Turkic “yakin” (in English similar, in Turkic close, near)

      English “earth” – Türkic “yer” (both in English and Turkic means earth and ground)

      Also comparing suffixes in English and Turkic is a must research

      English “-able” – Turkic “-abil-ebil”

      English “-ly” – Turkic “-lig, -lan”

      English “-ling” – Turkic “-lig, -lik”

      English “-al” – Turkic “-al”

      English “-an” – Turkic “-an”

      English “-en” – Turkic “-an/-än”

      English “-ery” – Turkic “yer, yeri (place, location)”

      Also many English suffixes contains nd/nt, ng, and nch and old Turkic Runic alphabet has special consonants for three of them.

      Once a time I have checked dictionaries and made such a cognate word list. I write what I remembered, some of them may be wrong. But it is enough for a start. And the interesting part is in etymology dictionaries these and many other words have no clear etymologies, mostly invented proto-Germanic or proto Indo-European words, or unknown origin, etc.

        • RAGE

          If you re-check them you can see the origin in the etymology dictionary is obscure, mostly a “reconstructed” proto Indo-European or proto Germanic root. I have written not Turkish but Turkic because the Turkic equivalents is common for almost all Turkic languages. But the etymology dictionary somehow mention mostly just Germanic languages not IE languages. As you know Germanic at least have 1/3 non-IE substrate.

          In the etymology dictionary “Babe: late 14c., short for baban (early 13c.), which probably is imitative of baby talk (see babble), however in many languages the cognate word means “old woman” (compare Russian babushka “grandmother,” from baba “peasant woman”).” Russian word itself is a Turkic borrowing!

          There is too much coincide in my samples for a little list. The etymology dictionary mostly ended in a reconstructed word? And in some cases unknown origin and can not explain the origin just mentions Germanic old versions? Where did the Germanic get them? Some of the samples means same as a noun and a verb without adding a suffix. Too much for coincide..

          If Turkic peoples urheimat is Ponto-Caspian steppes and Kurgan people is actually Turkic people as Krantz, Aline, etc. wrote, then these “coincidental similarities” became signs of direct relation…

          If Turkic could give for example a cultural word like “толма́ч, tolmac” to Slavic languages even before the split of Slavic languages, why it could not give innumerable words to Germanic languages? This word had cognates with German “Dolmetscher” and Hungarian “Tolmacs” also.

          At the end Germanic lands were once a time dominated for millenniums by Kurgan people and nomadic people from Ponto-Caspian steppes, and people of Scandinavia began their expansion after Kurgan burials began in Scandinavia and also after Hunnic era. Even in the last millennium we can count Scythians, Sarmatians, Huns, Bulgars, Alans, Patzinaks, Magyars, Kumans, Uzes, Onogurs, etc.

          Kin and its older Germanic variants,
          Kün in common Turkic and
          Qin in Chinese (Like in heqin) with more or less same vocals and consonants and with the same meaning can be a coincide or a borrowed word. It is very hard that Germans or Chinese borrowed from each other this word. Only people that could contacted with both people and carry the word from western end of the Eurasia to Eastern end of it could be just Turkic people.

          • Well, anyone who knows anything about etymology would know that *all* forms in Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic are reconstructed. As are forms in Proto-Turkic that you seem to refer to. So nothing “obscure” about that.

            The etymology of the Russian word “baba” has nothing to do with Turkish and also derives from “babbling”: http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=%2Fusr%2Flocal%2Fshare%2Fstarling%2Fmorpho&morpho=1&basename=morphovasmervasmer&first=1&off=&text_word=%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B0&method_word=substring&ic_word=on&text_general=&method_general=substring&ic_general=on&text_origin=&method_origin=substring&ic_origin=on&text_trubachev=&method_trubachev=substring&ic_trubachev=on&text_editorial=&method_editorial=substring&ic_editorial=on&text_pages=&method_pages=substring&ic_pages=on&text_any=&method_any=substring&sort=word&ic_any=on

            As for your objection about Germanic, Germanic might have inherited a root from PIE, or might have adopted it from some language that no longer exists (something that was spoken at the Baltic Sea shores, which is clearly not Turkic), or it might have made it up from nothing, that happens surprisingly a lot also. If you read carefully, you will see references to etymological connections to Baltic languages (Latvian, Lithuanian) or to other Indo-European languages (non-Germanic ones).

            At the time of PIE or Proto-Germanic, neither of them was anywhere close to Proto-Turkic, which was spoken in the Altai region.

          • RAGE

            Not really, etymology means “facts of the origin and development of a word”. Using reconstructed proto language forms are a new trend become popular in recent decades. So with such a logic anyone can claim for example that North America is the homeland of the Anglo-Saxon people and language, because it has the greatest Anglo-Saxon population, most diverse Anglo-Saxon dialects, the greatest area and access to other Anglo-Saxon lands like Australia, New Zealand, Britain via maritime routes. Of course in fact this is not true.

            By the way the Turkic samples I have written are all active or written forms not reconstructed proto language words. How many reconstructed proto words do you see in Vasmer’s dictionary? The random samples below are from Vasmer’s dictionary:

            Turkic borrowings and Turkisms are wide spread from daily life to statecraft in Russian like “оча́г”, “толма́ч”, “жесть”, “канды́к”, “камы́ш”, “борсу́к”, ” барс”, “башка́”, “быля”, “Русла́н”, …

            Word: ба́ба,
            Near etymology: ба́бушка, укр. ба́ба, русск.-цслав. баба, болг. ба́ба, сербохорв. ба̏ба, словен. bába, чеш. bába “старуха, бабушка”, польск. baba и т. д. Родственно лит. bóba “старая женщина, старуха”, лтш. bãba — то же. Слово детского языка; ср. ср.-в.-н. bābe, bōbe “старуха”, ср.-в.-н. buobe “мальчик, слуга” и т. д.; см. Бернекер 1, 36; Траутман, BSW 23; М. — Э. 1, 270.
            Pages: 1,99
            Word: баба́,
            Near etymology: баба́й “дед, старик”, диал., заимств. из тур., чагат. babà “отец, дед”, см. Mi. EW 6; TEl. 1, 252.
            Pages: 1,99
            Word: ба́ба,
            Near etymology: ка́менная ба́ба — название каменных идолов на юге России. Согласно Фридриху (Mel. Boisacq I, 383), заимств. из тюрк. babà “изваяние”, что восходит к baba “отец”. Ударение русского слова говорит, скорее, в пользу его происхождения от ба́ба “женщина, бабушка”.
            Pages: 1,99-100

            Word: толма́ч,
            Near etymology: род. п. -а́, толма́чить “переводить”, укр. товкма́чити — то же (под влиянием толк), др.-русск. тълмачь “переводчик, толмач”, толмач (часто в XVI–XVII вв., Сказ. Мам. поб. 2; см. Шамбинаго, ПМ 9; Гагара 78; Котошихин и др.), хорв.-глаголич. тльмачь, болг. тълма́ч, сербохорв. ту́ма̑ч, род. п. тума́ча, тума́чити, 1 л. ед. ч. ту̀ма̑чи̑м, словен. tolmáč, tolmáčiti, 1 л. ед. ч. tolmȃčim, чеш. tlumač, tlumočiti, слвц. tlmač, tlmоčit᾽, польск. tɫumacz, tɫumaczyć, в.-луж. tоɫmаč, toɫmačić.

            Further etymology: Слав. *tъlmačь является древним заимств. из тюрк.; ср. кыпч. tylmač, казах. tilmäš, тел., алт. tilmäč, тур. dilmač, уйг. tilmäži (см. Радлов 3, 1091, 1390, 1770); ср. Юркянкаллио, Studiа Orientalia, Хельсинки, 1952, 17, I и сл.; Мi. ЕW 369; ТЕl. 2, 177; Младенов 644. Первоисточник всех этих слов ищут в языке митанни — talami “переводчик, толмач” (см. Клюге-Гётце 109; Юркянкаллио, там же). Тюрк. происхождение приводимого выше слова предполагает Менгес (Oriental Еlеm. 52). Из какого-либо зап.-слав. языка или из венг. tolmács заимств. ср.-в.-н. tolmetsche, нов.-в.-н. Dolmetsch — то же; см. Клюге-Гётце, там же; Локоч 162. Местн. н. укр. Толмач, польск. Тɫumасz, в Галиции (Барсов, Мат. 199), явно происходит от тюрк. племенного названия Тоlmаč; см. выше, толковины.

            Trubachev’s comments: [Немет (“Асtа Orientalia Hung.”, 8, 1958, стр. 1 и сл.) в специальной работе оспаривает этимологию Юркянкаллио, принимая во внимание толкование Ларошем митаннийск. tal(a)mi-= “большой”, и предполагает происхождение из печенежск., ср. тюрк. tïl/til “язык”. — Т.]
            Pages: 4,72

            Word: оча́г,
            Near etymology: род. п. -а́. Заимств. из тюрк., ср. азерб., чагат. оčаɣ “очаг”, тур., крым.-тат. оǯаk — то же, тар. оčаk (Радлов 1, 1134, 1136), тат. učak, кумык. оǯаk (KSz 15, 247); см. Мi. ЕW 220; ТЕl. 2, 136; Корш у Преобр. I, 673; Брандт, РФВ 23, 95 и сл.
            Trubachev’s comments: [См. еще Севортян, “Лексикогр. сб.”, вып. 5, М., 1962, стр. 11 и сл. — Т.]
            Pages: 3,177

            Word: жесть
            Near etymology: I., ж., укр. жерсть — то же. Заимств. из тюрк. или монг.: ср. казах. ǯez “желтая медь, жесть”, тат. ǯiz “желтая медь”, чагат.. алт., тел. čas “жесть, бронза”, кыпч. jäz “желтая медь”, алт., тел., леб. jäs “медь”, бар. jis (Радлов 3, 376, 528, 1909; 4, 85, 154), также монг. ǯes “медь, латунь”, калм. zes — то же (Корш, Акад. Слов. 2, 403; ИОРЯС 8, 4, 34; Рамстедт, KWb. 473; Преобр. I, 231). Неясно укр. р, которое, согласно Преобр. (там же), возникло под влиянием слова шерсть, — что неубедительно. Рясянен (Festschr.-Vasmer 422) сопоставляет жесть в первую очередь с чув. šoś, šǝ̂vǝ̂ś — то же, отделяя его от кыпч. jäz.
            Pages: 2,51

            Word: канды́к,
            Near etymology: бот., растение “собачий зуб, Erythronium dens canis”. Заимств. из тюрк.: ср. алт., саг., тел., койб. kandyk — то же (Радлов 2, 124); см. Корш, Акад. Сл. 4, 354; Бернекер 1, 481; Локоч 85. Неприемлемо произведение из греч. σκάνδυξ, вопреки Миклошичу (см. Мi. ЕW 111), Маценауэру (193), Фасмеру (Гр.-сл. эт. 76).
            Pages: 2,180

            Word: камы́ш.
            Near etymology: Из тур., кыпч., крым.-тат., азерб., тат. kаmуš — то же (Радлов 2, 487 и сл.); см. Мi. ЕW 110; ТЕl. 1, 325; Бернекер 1, 478 и сл. Форму камышло́ “заросли тростника” Корш (Bull. Ас. Sс. dе St. Pétersbourg, 1907, стр. 766 и сл.) объясняет из тюрк. *kаmуšlаɣ; ср. сев.-тюрк. (прииртышск.) kamyšlau̯; сюда же местн. н. Камышлов, в то время как Камышле́й — приток Хопра, восходит к тюрк. kamyšly “поросший камышом” (Радлов 2, 488).
            Pages: 2,176

            Word: барс
            Near etymology: I. — хищный зверь “Felis pardus”, засвидетельствовано около 1625 г. (Хожд. Котова 98). Заимств. из туркм., хивинск., др.-тюрк., уйг. bars “тигр, пантера, рысь” (Радлов 4, 1158, 1457); ср. тур., тат. pars; см. Mi. TEl. 2, 140; Корш, AfslPh 9, 661. О происхождении тюрк. слов см. Банг, KSz 17, 133 и сл.; Sitzber. Preuss. Ak., 1931, стр. 471. Сюда же, по мнению Корша (там же), и бырсь “гиена”.
            Pages: 1,128

            Word: барсу́к,
            Near etymology: борсу́к — животное “Meles vulgaris”. Заимств. из тур., казах., балкар., карач. borsuk, тат. bursyk, barsyk, чагат. bursuk — то же; первонач. означало “серый” (Банг, KSz 17, 136 и сл.; Гомбоц 52; Mi. TEl. 2, 144).
            Trubachev’s comments: [См. еще Цельникер, Этимология, М., 1963, стр. 120 и сл. — Т.]
            Pages: 1,128

            Word: башка́
            Near etymology: — презрительное название головы; ср. укр. ба́шка — то же. Заимств. в форме дат. п. ед. ч. baška от тур., азерб., крым.-тат., тат., кыпч. baš “голова” (Радлов 4, 1546); см. Mi. TEl. 1, 257, Доп. 2, 82 и сл.; Мелиоранский, ИОРЯС 7, 2, 289; Корш, ИОРЯС 8, 4, 42. Форма дат. п. ед. ч. перешла в русск. язык в выражениях типа baška kanča berüpčän “сколько дашь за голову?” [при покупке скота. — Ред.], а на грамматический род повлияло слово голова́.
            Pages: 1,139

            Word: быля
            Near etymology: “знатный, сановник”, только др.-русск. быля (СПИ), ст.-слав. был κόμης, πατρίκιος (Супр.). Сюда же ср.-греч. βοελας, βοηλᾶς, мн. βοιλάδες (Феофан), βολιάδες (Kонст. Багр.).
            Further etymology: Заимств. из др.-тюрк. boila, buila “благородный, знатный”; см. Корш, AfslPh 9, 491; ИОРЯС 8, 4, 35 и сл.; 11, 1, 279 и сл.; Мелиоранский, ИОРЯС 7, 2, 285 и сл.; 10, 2, 84 и сл. Византийское посредничество исключено ввиду наличия б и ы; см. Фасмер, RS 3, 263 и сл., который выступает против Бернекера (1, 113).
            Pages: 1,259

            Word: Русла́н,
            Near etymology: Ерусла́н — имя богатыря, героя русск. народн. песен, былин, сказок. Заимств. из тюрк., ср. тур., чагат., уйг., тат. arslan “лев”, казах. aryslan, чув. arǝslan (Радлов I, 327 и сл.); см. Банг, KSz 17, 126; WZKМ 13, 112; Гомбоц 110; UJb. 8, 271; Мелиоранский, ИОРЯС 10, 2, 72. Ср. тур. Аlр Arslan — имя сельджукского хана, также греч. ᾽Αρσίλας у Менандра Протектора, Frgm. 43 (Мюллер, FНG 4, 245) и особенно дунайско-болг. ᾽Οσλάν(ν)ας ὁ βαγατούρ (см. на слон).
            Pages: 3,520-521

            For example Gold, Zlato, etc. cognates with common Turkic Ultan/Altan/Altun. Interesting part is Alt and Altun/Altan in Turkic same with Germanic Gold and Golden like gold (the metal) golden (made from gold). If you will claim that the word is Germanic or Slavic and Turkic people borrowed it, then you should explain how Turkic people come to Eastern Europe once a time, borrowed the word, spread it to all Turkic languages later went to Altai mountains and gave the name Altai to those mountains which means Alt + Tag/Tau = Gold Mountain and also gave the word to Mongolian people as Altan.

            “At the time of PIE or Proto-Germanic, neither of them was anywhere close to Proto-Turkic, which was spoken in the Altai region.” Your claim about Turkic people were late-comers and got words from local people can not explain how even other Turkic people who live ten thousand kilometres away can use the same words. All my examples are common for Turkic languages but not common for IE or common for a sub-branch of it. This fact clearly shows the route of the borrowings.

            The famous Kurgan people is proto-Turkic as Krantz, Allinei, etc. has already written. Actually from Western Kazakhistan to Kingan mountains there is not a single land that could be urheimat of any people. For example Mongolia has 1,566,000 km2 area and even in 2015 has just 2.9 million population in 7.3 billion world population. And the most of the Mongolian land are permafrost even grass can not be grown forget the over-population, migration, etc.

            Turkic people come from Eastern Asia, Mongolia even behind the Kingan Mts. and conquered, assimilated all the settled and nomadic Iranian people almost instantly without any trace 1500 years ago is something acceptable? Without numbers, technology, high culture, etc. how could Turks assimilate all those numerous more civilized Iranian people and others if they were really Iranian people?

            Believing in Abaev’s hoax on Zelenchuk inscription which is even today can be read in Karachay-Balkar Turkic and accept Ossetians (a Russian invented exonym) as descendants of Alans, Alans were a part of Sarmatians and Sarmatians were relatives of Scythians so Scythians spoke an Iranian language is acceptable to you? I do not think so. Ossetians are two totally different people, Iron and Digors. Ossetian consist %23 Iranian and IE vocabulary but the other half is Caucasian. Also Turkic gave it as much borrowings as Iranian. In all aspects Ossetian has nothing to do with Iranian except borrowings and some grammatical traits with them.

            Have you ever check the swadesh lists of so-called Altaic languages or even just cardinal numbers. I wonder can you find even any similarities between Turkic and other so-called Altaic languages. Altaic Family is an old story, if there is an Altaic language family Turkic is the only member of it. So Turkic Language Family is more proper. Whatever, excluding other people and languages does not solve any problem of IE languages. We dig for 200 years the IE well and could not find water. In fact, of all known language families, the IE one is the best-known and most clearly defined, because it is the most worked one upon. Turkology is still a terra-incognita unfortunately. But until 20th century Turkic people and not Iranians, ride horses as born for it, found dozens of Empires, innumerable states from China to Balkans, from India to Siberia, fight as mounted warriors, breed horses, migrate thousands of kilometers in one jump, worshipped Tengri, and buried in kurgans to return to Tengri. And those kurgans, the religon, the lifestyle lead us to Pontic-Caspian steppes as the beginnig of this culture and as urheimat of proto-Turks.

            Just answer these questions by yourself not for me please…

            If in fact Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, etc. were Iranian people, then this means two millennium Iranian nomadic domination from Central Europe to China, right? After two millennium domination how could those so-called Iraninan cultures did not gave innumerable Iranian words to Germanic, Slavic, Baltic, etc. languages. I do not mention even the heavy cultural impact, which we should expect… Please ask a Russian expert how many Iranian words exist in Slavic languages. Just a bunch of controversial words…

            The main attribute of Kurgan people is the Kurgan itself. Please try to find a single Iranian or Indo-Aryan kurgan especially in Iran and India. Also try to find an Iranian religion that supports Kurgan burial tradition.

            You should understand that I am not a professional and I can not spend too much time writing comments about such complicated subjects. I am just a curious man, if I can find such a connections in a limited time randomly, then absence of researches about this connections should need explanation. Maybe I can give one explanation.

            “On 9 August 1944 the Central Committee VKP, the ruling party of the USSR, published an edict prohibiting “ancientization” of Turkic history. The edict was followed by a consecutive wave of mass arrests, imprisoning and killing of the intelligentsia, massive creation of replacement “scientists”, and re-writing of history pages on an industrial scale. Combined with the concurrent wholesale deportation of indigenous populations to remote areas in Middle Asia and Siberia, the wipe-out of the science was nearly complete, and the impact of the action subsided only partially in the newly independent countries after the collapse of the USSR. In the two decades after the Bolshevik’s assuming power, the tradition of Turkological studies in Russia and dependent countries was practically wiped out.

            On the other hand, this edict brought unintended benefits to Turkology. [How?!] One was the nearly immediate linguistic development of an alternate lexicon which replaced the nouns and adjectives containing the word “Türk” by a wealth of euphemisms: “nomads, Siberians, Paleosiberians, Middle Asians, Scythians, Altaians, Tuvians”, etc. that filled scientific publications. The other was “writing into a drawer”, when results of the years of fruitful work were written down for future publication. When the bonds relaxed, the publications exploded. Another was a flight of scientists from European Russia into remote areas, which brought first class scientists to many intellectually starved outlying areas of Middle Asia. Another one was connected with the statewide efforts to re-invent the history, when a wealth of Turkological facts were found in the process of search for “correct” history. And another one was a built-up of the public interest for the forbidden subjects, that resulted that no print size could satisfy the demand. L.N.Gumilev and O.Suleimenov inflamed a surge in the new generation of Turkology scholars.

            With the physical culling of the scholars from the society, concurrently was also organized a total extermination of all their published and unpublished works, their books were removed from the libraries and destroyed from private collections by intimidated population, articles and publications were culled, published photographs were retouched, private photographs were destroyed, published scientific references were erased, or publications with undesired references were destroyed. Very few of the early 20th century expedition diaries, ethnographical notes, reports and drafts for publications were ever recovered.”

            Please explain yourself if Turks were not the ancient people of the land then why the Central Committee VKP, the ruling party of the USSR, published an edict prohibiting “ancientization” of Turkic history in the middle of WW2? Is it the most important thing in the middle of WW2, in the middle of the war for survival?

            Have a nice day…

            (BTW I like your comments…)

          • “Just answer these questions by yourself not for me please…” — I did answer the question about Altaic “family” here: http://www.languagesoftheworld.info/language-families/altaic-family-controversy.html

            And if you believe that there was some “Turkic” language, the same across the entire language family which hasn’t changed since PIE (6,000 years), you have to educate yourself about the very basics. Good luck!

          • beneficii


            I think you misunderstood RAGE here, as RAGE also doubted the existence of an Altaic family that includes Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic. This is what RAGE wrote:

            >Altaic Family is an old story, if there is an Altaic language family Turkic is the only member of it. So Turkic Language Family is more proper.

            The “if there is an Altaic language family Turkic is the only member of it” comment makes it clear that RAGE does not believe that Mongolic and Tungusic are in the same family as Turkic.

  • paul raicu

    Horse it’s a strong item of Turkic ancestry, that’s explain Cr., Serb. ajgir, Pol. ogier ‘stallion’, from Turkic aygur ‘stallion’.

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  • Games pundits are idiots

    That’s why Russia is very different and unique among the European countries. It’s language and ethnicity is a mixture of Slavic-Turkic.

    • Not really: Ukraine, Bulgarian, Greece… all have Turkic peoples or Turkic influences…

  • RAGE

    All the samples in the article are late borrowings, what about Turkisms in Slavic languages. Also what about words wide spread in Slavic languages like “толма́ч”…

  • Ali Rıza Sığırcı